Diabetes is a lifestyle disease influencing the way in which the body handles digested carbohydrates. If disregarded, It can cause extreme well-being inconveniences, extending from visual impairment to kidney failure.
Diabetes is quickly picking up the status of a potential disease in India with more than 62 million diabetic people at present determined to have the illness. In 2000, India (31.7 million) surprised the world with the most noteworthy number of individuals with diabetes mellitus. China (20.8 million) and the United States (17.7 million) hold second and third place separately in this regard.
Diabetics have a high level of blood glucose. Blood sugar level is regulated by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, which releases it in response to carbohydrate consumption. Insulin causes the cells of the body to absorb glucose from the blood. The glucose then serves as fuel for cellular functions.
Diagnostic Standards for Diabetes in India
Traditional diagnostic standards have been fasting plasma glucose levels greater than 140 mg/dL on 2 occasions and plasma glucose greater than 200 mg/dL following a 75-gram glucose load. However, even more recently, the American Diabetes Association lowered the criteria for a diabetes diagnosis to fasting plasma glucose levels equal to or higher than 126 mg/dL. Fasting plasma levels outside the normal limit demand further testing, usually by repeating the fasting plasma glucose check and (if indicated) initiating an oral glucose tolerance test.
The many symptoms of this lifestyle disease include excessive urination, excessive thirst and hunger, sudden weight loss, blurred vision, delay in healing of wounds, dry and itchy skin, repeated infections, fatigue and headache. While suggestive of diabetes, these symptoms can also be caused by other factors, and therefore anyone with symptoms suspicious of the disease should be tested.
There are two different Types of Diabetes.
Type-1 Diabetes (juvenile, also known as insulin-dependent):
The cause of type-1 starts with pancreatic inability to make insulin. This causes 5-10% of cases of diabetes. The pancreatic Islet of Langerhans cells, which secrete the hormone, are destroyed by the patient’s own immune system, probably because it mistakes them for a virus. Viral infections are believed to be the trigger that sets off this auto-immune disease. Type-1 is most prevalent in the Caucasian population and has a hereditary component.
If untreated, Type-1 or juvenile diabetes can lead to death within two to three months of the onset, as the cells of the body starve because they no longer receive the hormonal prompt to absorb glucose. While a great majority of Type I diabetics are young (hence the term Juvenile Diabetes), the condition can develop at any age. Autoimmune diabetes is diagnosed by an immunological assay which shows the presence of anti-insulin/anti-islet-cell antibodies.
Type-2 Diabetes (non-insulin dependent, also known as adult onset):
This diabetes is a consequence of body tissues becoming resistant to the effects of insulin. It accounts for 90-95% of cases. In many cases the pancreas is producing a plentiful amount of insulin, however the cells of the body have become unresponsive to its effect due to the chronically high level of the hormone. Finally the pancreas will exhaust its over-active secretion of the hormone, and insulin levels fall to beneath normal.
A tendency towards Type-2 is hereditary, although it is unlikely to develop in normal-weight individuals eating a low- or even moderate-carbohydrate diet. Obese, sedentary individuals who eat poor-quality diets built around refined starch, which constantly activates pancreatic insulin secretion, are prone to develop insulin resistance. Native peoples like North American Aboriginals, whose traditional diets never included refined starch and sugar until these items were introduced by Europeans, have very high rates of diabetes, five times the rate of Caucasians. Blacks and Hispanics are also at higher risk of the disease. Though Type-2 isn’t as immediately disastrous as Type-1, it can lead to health complications after many years and cause serious disability and shortened lifespan. As with Type-1 diabetes, the condition develops primarily in a certain age group, in this case patients over forty (which is why it’s typically termed Adult Onset Diabetes); however, with the rise in childhood and teenage obesity, this condition is being seen for the first time in school children as well.
If treatment is neglected, both Type I and Type II diabetes can lead to life-threatening complications like kidney damage (nephropathy), heart disease, nerve damage (neuropathy), retinal damage and blindness (retinopathy), and hypoglycemia (drastic reduction in glucose levels).
Diabetes damages blood vessels, especially smaller end-arteries, leading to very severe and premature atherosclerosis. Diabetics are prone to foot problems because neuropathy, which afflicts about ten percent of patients, causes their feet to lose sensation. Foot injuries, common in day-to-day living, go unnoticed, and these injuries cannot heal because of atherosclerotic blockage of the microscopic arteries in the foot. Gangrene and subsequent amputation of toes, feet or even legs is the result for many elderly patients with poorly-controlled diabetes. Usually these sequelae are seen sooner in Type I than Type II diabetes, because Type II patients have a small amount of their own insulin production left to buffer changes in blood sugar levels.
Type-1 diabetes is a severe disease and there is no known permanent cure for it. Nonetheless, the symptoms can be controlled by strict dietary monitoring and insulin injections. Implanted pumps which release insulin immediately in response to changes in blood glucose are in the testing stages.
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In theories, since it is induced by diet, Type-2 ought to be preventable and manageable by dietary changes alone. Be that as it may, as so regularly happens, clinical hypothesis is vanquished by human instinct for this situation, the same number of diabetics (and numerous stout individuals without diabetes) discover it by and by difficult to get in shape or even adhere to an eating regimen free of boring, sugary garbage nourishment. So Type-2 is as often as possible treated with drugs which re-establish the body’s reaction to its own insulin, and in a couple of cases injections of insulin.
If you don’t mind take note of that this article isn’t a substitute for therapeutic or medical advice.
On the off chance that you speculate you have diabetes or even are in a high risk statistic gathering, please consult your doctor.